LSAT Technical Reports

Analysis of Differential Prediction of Law School Performance by Racial/Ethnic Subgroups Based on 2008–2010 Entering Law School Classes (TR 12-02)

In the law school admission process, it is essential that the criteria used for admission are fair to all subgroups in the applicant population. One method used to evaluate the fairness of the admission process is to compare the predicted and actual first-year averages (FYAs) within individual law schools for various subgroups of the applicant population. The current study was designed to address questions of differential prediction of law school grades for various racial/ethnic subgroups.

The sample used in this study was drawn from the 2008, 2009, and 2010 entering law school classes, using data that were available from the Law School Admission Council (LSAC)-sponsored correlation studies. The study examined results for three racial/ethnic minority subgroups and the nonminority (White) subgroup. Data were analyzed from 178 law schools, each of which over the 3-year period enrolled 10 or more first-year students who identified themselves as Asian American, Black, or Latino and 10 or more first-year students who identified themselves as White.

Statistical analyses were used to predict FYAs using Law School Admission Test (LSAT) score alone, undergraduate grade point average (UGPA) alone, and the best predictive combination of LSAT score and UGPA. Analyses were carried out separately for all individual law schools included in the study, resulting in three prediction equations for each law school.

The results of the analyses indicate that FYA tended to be, on average, slightly overpredicted (i.e., predicted FYAs exceeded actual FYAs) for all three of the racial/ethnic minority subgroups studied here, with Black law students exhibiting the most overprediction and Asian American law students exhibiting the least overprediction. The combination of both LSAT score and UGPA provided the least amount of overprediction for racial/ethnic minority subgroups on the school level compared to the use of either single predictor alone. Overall, these results do not support the concern that LSAT score alone or the combination of LSAT score and UGPA may contribute to unfair admission decisions for the racial/ethnic subgroups studied here.

While considering the results of this study, the reader should keep in mind that they refer only to subgroup behavior and not to individuals. For example, while results may suggest that UGPAs alone may overpredict FYAs for Black law students on average, the performance of many individual Black law students may be underpredicted based solely on their UGPAs.

Finally, it is worth repeating that the average amount of overprediction or underprediction of FYAs found for the four racial/ethnic subgroups studied was very slight, regardless of the prediction equation that was used. In other words, this study provided no evidence that LSAT score, UGPA, or the combination of those two predictor variables unfairly predict future law school performance for any racial/ethnic subgroup.

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Additional reports in this collection

LSAT Performance With Regional, Gender, and Racial and Ethnic Breakdowns: 2011–2012 Through 2017–2018 Testing Years

The purpose of this report is to provide summary information about Law School Admission Test (LSAT) performance, including performance classified by country, region of the United States, gender only, race and ethnicity only, and both gender and race and ethnicity. Information regarding LSAT performance is summarized for the 2011–2012 through 2017–2018 testing years and compiled into a single report, enabling trends with regard to the performance and representation of various subgroups to be examined.

Summary of 2017, 2018, and 2019 LSAT Correlation Study...

Since the inception of the Law School Admission Test (LSAT), the Law School Admission Council (LSAC) has sought to evaluate and ensure its validity for use in the law school admission process. As predictive validity is an important component in the overall evaluation of test validity, LSAC has carried out predictive validity studies, also called LSAT Correlation Studies, since the test was first administered.