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About LSAC

Policies Related to Transcript Summarization

US/Canadian Transcript Summarization

(Available only to Credential Assembly Service (CAS) registrants)

How Grades Are Converted

Grades are converted to a standard 4.0 system in order to furnish law schools with a uniform basis for comparing applicants.

LSAC-member schools have selected a common set of numerical values to represent the various grading systems used by US/Canadian institutions. LSAC makes no attempt to assess the value of grades earned at different colleges. Each law school sets its own rules for interpretation of applicants' grade-point averages; members of law school admission committees understand that a particular grade earned at one college may not have the same meaning as the identical grade at another. In all cases, a copy of each transcript is sent to law schools along with LSAC's Law School Report.

Grades Excluded From Conversion

  • Withdraw, Withdraw/Pass—only if the issuing school considers the grade nonpunitive.
  • Incomplete—only if the issuing school considers the grade nonpunitive.
  • Those given for remedial courses only if the transcript clearly indicates they are remedial.
  • Those awarded after the first undergraduate degree was received.
  • Those assigned no measure of credit by the issuing institution, regardless of the grade. Physical Education, Practical Art, Practical Music, and ROTC courses that are assigned credit will be included in the academic summary, even if the issuing institution does not include these courses in its calculation of a GPA.
  • Passing grades from systems of one or two passing grades (e.g., Pass/Fail, Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory, Credit/No Credit, or Honors/Pass/Fail, High Pass/Pass/Fail, and those for which conversion rules cannot be formulated, including courses for which a transcript gives only narratives or descriptions. Credits for the work in these courses are totaled and reported separately as unconverted credits. The only exception to this policy is for a reported grade below C-minus from a two-passing-grade grading system (e.g., Credit/D/Fail) when the issuing institution includes this grade in their calculation of a GPA.
  • Grade symbols that have multiple meanings at the issuing school, and the issuing school's registrar is unable to confirm whether course credit was attempted (such as NC=either No Credit Attempted or No Credit Awarded, etc.). The total number of credits usually assigned to the particular type of course will appear on the applicant's academic summary but will not be included in the GPA calculation.
  • Withdrawal grades that signify failure (such as WF=Withdraw/Fail, WU=Withdrew Unsatisfactory, WNP=Withdrew Not Passing) if the issuing school considers the grade nonpunitive. The total number of credits assigned to these grades will appear on the applicant's academic summary, but will not be included in the GPA calculation.
  • The original grade for a repeated course when the transcript does not show both the grade and the units for the original attempt. The total number of credits assigned to these grades will appear on the applicant's academic summary, but will not be included in the GPA calculation.
  • A No Credit grade that does not signify failure and for which no attempt at credit was made (e.g., NC=No Credit/Withdraw, or NC=No Credit Attempted).

Failing Grades

Any grade notation that signifies failure (such as No Credit, No Credit/Fail, Not Passing, Incomplete/Fail, Withdraw/Fail, Unsatisfactory, Fail, etc.) is converted to zero on the 4.0 scale and is included in the calculation of the GPA, even if the issuing school considers the grade to be nonpunitive. Failure is defined as credit attempted but not earned. If a transcript is not clear about credit attempted, LSAC staff will contact the registrar at the issuing school to confirm whether course credit was attempted. Incomplete and Withdraw grades considered punitive by the issuing school will be included in the conversion. The only exception to this policy is for No Credit, Withdraw/Fail, repeated courses, and incomplete grades specifically explained in Grades Excluded From Conversion.

Repeated Courses

All grades and credits earned for repeated courses will be included in the GPA calculation if the course units and grades appear on the transcript. A line drawn through course information or a grade does not eliminate the course from GPA calculation if the course units appear on the transcript.

Academic Notes

If a transcript contains academic notes such as dean's list, study-abroad credits, academic probation, suspension, dismissal, warning, and so on, these notes will appear on your law school report.

Transcript notations such as dean's list, Phi Beta Kappa, summa cum laude, and the like will be included on the report as "Academic Honors." Academic honors not included on your official transcript will be noted on the Law School Report if an official, sealed letter sent from the registrar is received by LSAC.

If you question a transcript notation of academic action, you should contact the institution directly and resolve the matter as soon as possible. Please note that a discrepancy between your answer to a law school application academic record question and notations on your transcript(s) could result in a misconduct and irregularities investigation.

Advanced Placement (AP) or College Level Examination Programs (CLEP)

AP or CLEP courses are summarized and included in the GPA if the undergraduate school transcript shows grades and credits for them. (See Unconverted Credits for transcripts showing credits but no grades.)

Grade-Point Average (GPA)

LSAC calculates a GPA for each year and a cumulative GPA for each undergraduate institution that issued a transcript for you. A cumulative GPA that includes all undergraduate work is also calculated and reported. A cumulative GPA for a school within an institution cannot be calculated.

In calculating a GPA, LSAC uses the grades and credits for every course that can be converted to the 4.0 scale, although the institution issuing the transcript may exclude some of the courses from its own calculations. Courses excluded from the academic summary are not included in the GPA calculation.

There may be some variation between the GPAs calculated by LSAC and those calculated by colleges or students; however, the variation is rarely substantial. Because the law schools that use LSAC's Credential Assembly Service understand its procedures, a slight variation in GPA is not likely to affect a law school's admission decision.

Course Credits

All credits are reported in terms of semester hours. All earned credits not reported in semester hours are converted to that system. Trimester hours are treated as semester hours; quarter hours are multiplied by .67 to arrive at semester hours. Credits recorded in other units are converted to semester hours using the formula supplied by the college issuing the transcript.

Unconverted Credits

Although passing grades for courses with only one or two passing grades may not be converted to the 4.0 scale, credit is given for them in the Credential Assembly Service summary (see Grades Excluded From Conversion for examples). These courses, and any course for which the transcript shows credit but no grade, appear in the Unconverted Credit Hours section of the law school report.

NOTE: Some universities do not notify students when they are placed on academic probation or when other academic action is taken. Before completing your law school applications, be sure to request a copy of your official transcripts for your own use and review them for any information that may help you respond to law school application questions. Although LSAC will forward your transcripts to the law schools to which you apply, you should be careful to answer questions on the application forms completely and accurately to avoid a review by the LSAC Misconduct and Irregularities Subcommittee.

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